Ярослав Борисович Блюм – Yaroslav Blume

UNDERUTILIZED AND FORGOTTEN CROPS: FUTURE FOR SMART FOOD

Yaroslav Blume1, Rostyslav Blume1, Alla Yemets1, Dhzamal Rakhmetov2

1Institute of Food Biotechnology and Genomics, Osyposkoho str., 2A, 04123, Kyiv, Ukraine
2M.M. Hryshko National Botanical Garden, Natl. Acad. Sci. of Ukraine, Tymiryazevska str., 1, 02000, Kyiv, Ukraine
cellbio@cellbio.freenet.viaduk.net

Among of 7000 crops 12 plant species are dominating. Together with 5 animal species they provide about 75% of word’s food. 60% of caloric input we obtain from wheat, rice and maize. Cereal production across the EU is based currently on three main crops – wheat, barley and maize (accounting for more than 85 % of the cereals produced and grown on about 78 % of the land cultivated with cereals). But in total 7,000 crops were used for food worldwide through agricultural history. It means, that too small diversity is deployed in farming and food systems. We can make better use of diversity having a wide range of neglected (forgotten) and underutilised crops.

This huge potential for diversification is represented by minor cereals (einkorn, emmer, spelt, rye and oats) and small grains. Small grains are a big group of different cereals: sorghums, millets, misc grains and pseudo cereals. Sorghums include broomcorn, sweet sorghum and grain sorghums (durra, kafir, milo, shallu, koaliang, feterita, hegari); millets – foxtail millet, proso millet, pearl millet, finger millet, teff; other millets (belong to the genus Echinochloa)– Japanese millet, shama millet, barnyard millet; misc grains – wild rice and Job’s tears, pseudo cereals – by buckwheat, breadfruit and quinoa. We developed special breeding program for cultivation sweet sorghum in the northern and central parts of Ukraine. In parallel we introduced finger millet in Ukraine and developed original varieties with high productivity.

Another group of crops are represented such neglected and underutilized legumes (rich in high-quality proteins) as cowpea, pigeon pea, lablab, mung bean and others as well as some oilseeds as camelina, Ethiopian mustard (carinata), crambe, pennycrass and other. During last ten years we developed germlasm pools for camelina, different crambe species and started to work with introduction and breeding of carinata in Ukraine.

Thus, the results of the presented studies are aimed at boosting cultivation of neglected and underutilised crops and their consumption in order to diversify food production in Europe and bring to the market species and varieties that have high nutritional quality.


Ярослав Борисович Блюм

Біографія: Закінчив Київ. держун-т ім. Т.Г.Шевченка (біохімія) (1978), канд. (1982) і докт. (1988) біол. наук, проф. (біотехнологія) (2006). Дир-р Ін-ту харч. біотехнології та геноміки НАН України, Київ (з 2008 р.) і зав. відділу геноміки та мол. біотехнол. Педагогічна робота: Асист. (1978-81), викладач і зав. філії к-ри кліт. біол. та генет. інж-рії з 1989 р., з 2019 р. – проф. к-ри біохімії КНУ. Наукова робота: Київ. ун-т (1978-87), Ін-т ботаніки (1987-88), Ін-т кліт. біол. та генет. інж. НАН України (1989-2008). Наук. інтереси – вивчення структури та функцій цитоскелету рослин, розроблення методів мол. біотехнології, створення рослин для харчових цілей та біопалив. Галузі: Кліт. біологія, мол. генетика та біотехнологія рослин. Додатково: Акад. НАН України (2006), член Academia Europaea (2021). Стажування у Фрайбурзькому ун-ті (1997), Канад. агентстві з інспекції харч. продуктів, Оттава, Канада (1998), Центрі Джона Іннеса, Норідж, Вел. Британія (1998-2003) та Антверпенському ун-ті (2005-2006). Запрошений проф. Єнського ун-ту ім. Шиллера, Німеччина (2001), стипендія Кокрана (США) (2010). Гол. редактор Cytol. Genetics та Open Agricult. J. Держпремія України (2011), премії ім. М.Я.Юр’єва (2002) та М.Г.Холодного (2019) НАН України. Засл. діяч науки і техніки України (2016). Бібліографія: Автор понад 300 наук. публікацій, 6 монографій та 25 розділів монографій, 15 патентів та 9 сортів рослин.

Yaroslav Blume

Education and work: Kyiv State Univ. (1978) – M.S. (Biochem.), Ph.D. (1982), and Dr. Sci. (Dr. Hab.) (1988), Prof. (2006). Working activity:Director, Inst. of Food Biotechnol. and Genomics, Kyiv (from 2008), and Head, Dept. of Genomics and Mol. Biotechnol. Career started at Kyiv Univ., then in Inst. Botany (1987-1988), Inst. of Cell Biol. and Genet. Eng. (1989-2008). Pedagogical work:Assist. Prof. (1978-81) and lecturer in Kyiv Natl. Univ. (from 1989), Prof., Dept. Biochem. (from 2019). Research work: Structure and functions of plant cytoskeleton, plant genomics and biotechnology (development of mol. biotechnological tools, creation of crops with novel traits, especially for food and biofuel). International Projects: INTAS, STCU, EU (COST and EU FP), CRDF. Bibliography: Author more than 300 papers, 6 monographs and 25 monograph chapters, 15 patent inventions and 9 plant varieties. Additionally: Full Member, Natl. Acad. Sci. of Ukr. (2006), Member of Academia Europaea (2021). Visiting scientist at the Univ. of Freiburg (1997), Canad. Food Inspection Agency, Ottawa (1998), John Innes Center, Norwich (1998-2003), and Antwerpen Univ. (2005-2006). Inv. Prof. at Schiller Univ., Jena (2001), Cochran Fellowship, USA (2010). EIC of Cytol. Genetics and The Open Agricult. J. State Prize of Ukraine (2011) and Prizes of Natl. Acad. Sci. (2002, 2019). Honorary State Title “Distinguished Person in Science and Techniques in Ukraine” (2016).

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